As there are so many endnotes for the Revelation 9 chapters, they are organized according to the same chapter divisions as the text, rather than try to fit them all here.
This archive displays the most recently added endnotes first. Click the first post, Revelation 9 Endnotes, to access each endnote in its order encountered in the text.
We already know that we are looking for an assault against the Byzantine Empire which begins sometime after 762, the date that marks the end of the fifth trumpet. The Turks are the only power to assault the Byzantine Empire following 762 (The Sixth Trumpet: 1056-1453, pg. 78).
That the assault of the sixth trumpet against the Byzantines cannot be attributed to the Mohammedans of the fifth trumpet:
Constantinople sustained two great sieges … the first siege was in 673-77, under the caliph Moawiya; his fleet blockaded the capital for five years; but all its efforts were frustrated by the able precautions of Constantine IV.; ‘Greek fire’ … played an important part in the defence; and the armada was annihilated on the voyage back to Syria by storms and the Roman fleet. The second crisis was at the accession of Leo III., when the city was besieged by land and sea by Suleiman for a year (717-18), and Leo’s brilliant defence, again aided by Greek fire, saved Europe. This crisis marks the highest point of Mohammedan aggression, which never again caused the Empire to tremble for its existence.”
“Roman Empire, Later,” The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 23, p. 514.
Rev 9:1-11 quoted:
It was the unanimous opinion of the Protestant theologians before the advent of the futurist interpretation of Revelation, that these passages describe the rise of Islam (The Fifth Trumpet: 612-762, pg. 70).
“With surprising unanimity, commentators have agreed in regarding this as referring to the empire of the Saracens, or to the rise and progress of the religion and the empire set up by Mahomet.”
Albert Barnes, Notes on … Revelation, p. 218.